In the beginning is the word
Changing the meaning of a word is hard but not impossible
“Misogyny” seems a straightforward word. In dictionaries, it is “hatred of women”. In its etymology are the Greek verb misein, to hate, and gyne, women. The word, like the sentiment, has been around for a long time. Euripides, an ancient Greek playwright, was called a misogynes, or woman-hater. (“Well, in his tragedies, yes,” his peer Sophocles is said to have quipped, “but in bed at any rate he was a philogynes.”) The first known use of “misogynist” in English is from 1620—by a female group counter-attacking against a screed called “The Arraignment of Lewd, Idle, Froward [sic], and Unconstant Women”.
“Misogyny（厌女症）”这个词似乎很直白。字典里的解释为“hatred of women（憎恶女性）”。这个词的词源来源于希腊语动词“misein（恨）”和“gyne（女性）”。这个词和它所表达的情感一样，已经存在很长一段时间了。古希腊剧作家欧里庇得斯被称为“misogynes”或“woman-hater”（两词均意为“厌女者”）。“在他的悲剧中，是的，”据说他的同行索福克勒斯曾如此打趣道，“但无论如何，他在床上是个爱女性的人.”“厌女症”在英语中的首次使用是在1620年，当时一个女性团体反击一篇名为《对淫荡、懒散、乖戾和不稳定女性的传讯》的文章。
In fact, very few interesting words are quite so stable. As they are used, their meanings drift. Furthermore, they need not remain true to their etymological roots, a belief known to linguists as the “etymological fallacy”. The word “person”, for instance, comes from the Latin for “mask”; the word “tragedy” may derive from the Greek for “goat-song”. Over time, words evolve.
Much of that process is random. But it is also possible to make a conscious effort to shift how a word is used. One such bid is under way for “misogyny”. For decades, feminists have expanded its connotations beyond the idea of “hatred of women”. Recently Kate Manne, a philosopher at Cornell University, has become the voice of that campaign. She thinks the notion of a hatred for all women deep in the psychology of some men is philosophically untestable. In any case, few men, she says, really hate all women. Instead of misogyny meaning something men feel, she says it should designate something women face.